Validating instruments in mis research
After several reviews of the questions, they should be presented to peers and colleagues in the format the instrument is to be administered.
The peers and colleagues should match the items with the specification table and if there are not exact matches, revisions must be made.
Those specifications should narrow the purpose and identify the content areas.
In the specification process, each variable should be associated with a concept and an overarching theme (Ford, - Survey Specifications Mgmt at Stats Canada.pdf).
Depending on the financial resources of the research project, experts within the field may be hired to write the items.
Once the items are written, they need to be reviewed for clarity, formatting, acceptable response options, and wording.
Phase three is quantitative evaluation and includes administration of a pilot study to a representative sample.
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To determine if an appropriate instrument is available, a researcher can search literature and commercially available databases to find something suitable to the study.
Once the researcher is certain no other instruments exist, the researcher should review the literature to determine the operational definitions of the constructs that are to be measured.
This can be an arduous task because operationalizing a variable does not automatically indicate good measurement and therefore the researcher must review multiple literatures to determine an accurate and meaningful construct.